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  • Dear Redaer
    passing a time varying current through wire coil which produces a changing magnetic field that induces electrical current in the underlying brain Since TMS is noninvasive and painless it is widely used in neurophysiological studies and is being investigated as treatment for neurological and psychiatric diseases Depending on the stimulation parameters used TMS can excite or inhibit the brain The measurements used in single pulse TMS include the motor threshold

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_1.htm (2016-05-02)
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    Fax 39 0303717443 E mail miniussi med unibs it Abstract Cognitive deficits are a common consequence of neurological disease in particular of traumatic brain injury stroke and neurodegenerative disorders and there is evidence that specific cognitive training may be effective in cognitive rehabilitation While the neural mechanisms responsible for cognitive recovery remain largely unknown functional neuroimaging studies have shown that cerebral reorganization might occur after rehabilitation interventions 1 3 rTMS has been increasingly used to improve deficits including cognitive disorders following damage to the central nervous system Recent rTMS studies report improved ability to name pictures after administration of rTMS to the anterior portion of the right homologue of Broca s area in aphasic patients Stimulation of left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been also demonstrated to selectively improve picture naming in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer s disease Similar beneficial effects were demonstrated in a study that investigated the effect of rTMS on memory performance and brain activity as assessed with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI in elderly participants with memory complaints These studies suggest that rTMS may help to restore impaired abilities in physiological aging in chronic aphasia and in neurodegenerative disease These effects appear to

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_12.htm (2016-05-02)
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  • Dear Redaer
    days are probably mediated by activation of formerly silent synaptic pathways and by strengthening synaptic efficiency Presumably modulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and its receptor contributes substantially to rapidly evolving plasticity Other transmitters such as glutamate as well as neurotrophic factors may also be involved Reorganization developing over weeks or months is rather mediated by axonal sprouting Maybe even neurogenesis plays some role A special focus will be on

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_2.htm (2016-05-02)
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  • Dear Redaer
    cortex to spinal cord The TMS pulses readily penetrate the skull and carry an electric stimulating current into the cortex near the surface In the motor area this leads to activation of pyramidal neurones conduction of impulses to spinal cord and eventually to contraction of muscles on the contralateral side of the body Interestingly the TMS pulses tend not to activate the pyramidal output neurones directly but instead stimulate the axons of neurones that synapse onto them In addition to probe motor cortex excitability with single pulses TMS can also produce long term changes in excitability if the TMS pulses are applied repetitively rTMS The size of rTMS after effects is sensitive to the excitability of synaptic connections within the cortex at the time of stimulation and to a considerable number of factors For instance there are circadian fluctuations of cortical excitability related to the level of melatonin and cortisol In addition the level of ongoing cortical activity and even its prior history can interacts with the effects of rTMS Ovarian hormones may exert a significant influence on the response to rTMS which is probably related to the action of oestradiol on voltage gated sodium channels Pharmacological manipulation may influence

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_3.htm (2016-05-02)
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  • Dear Redaer
    inhibition IHI can be studied with TMS In this paradigm a conditioning TMS pulse is applied to one motor cortex and a second test TMS pulse is applied to the other contralateral motor cortex The conditioning pulse has an inhibitory effect on the motor evoked potential evoked by the subsequent test pulse This inhibitory effect is at least in part due to inhibition at the cortical level T here is

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_4.htm (2016-05-02)
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    rTMS produces these effects through mechanisms similar to those of long term potentiation LTP and long term depression LTD In light of this ability to modulate the excitability of the brain rTMS has been applied to several neurological psychiatric disorders as a therapeutic tool However the traditional rTMS protocols are usually lengthy and not very efficient and require strong unpleasant stimulus intensity In view of these problems we developed a

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_5.htm (2016-05-02)
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    in EEG after the stimulation It was concluded that rTMS is a safe technique that has no epileptogenic effect Relatively recently however it has been shown that rTMS may have potentially therapeutic effects in patients with epilepsy as showed by improved EEG patterns Another type of study covered the evaluation of rTMS induced effects after a single rTMS procedure in healthy subjects observed effects on the EEG power spectrum were controversial as stimulation settings were heterogeneous and hardly comparable Effects of rTMS on brain connectivity i e coherence estimation were dependent on stimulation frequency low frequency rTMS resulted in enhanced information flow from the site of stimulation to the specific regions whereas high frequency rTMS caused reduced coherence Moreover when motor cortex was stimulated effects were primarily exerted on alpha and beta EEG frequency bands The estimation of changes in parameters of evoked and event related potentials confirmed inhibitory properties of low frequency rTMS as indicated by prolonged latencies of P300 wave and reduced amplitudes of sensory components Observation of effects of high frequency rTMS on ERPs did not lead to any general conclusion which again might be due to the variations in stimulation parameters used More reproducable results were

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_6.htm (2016-05-02)
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    remote of the stimulation site Generally these effects depend not only on the stimulation site itself but also on the current state of the stimulated neurons the stimulation intensity e g sub or supratheshold stimulation and in case of repetitive TMS rTMS frequency and duration Functional neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography PET and the blood oxygen level dependent BOLD signal acquired in functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI provide

    Original URL path: http://www.neurorehab.hu/rtms/htm/ab_7.htm (2016-05-02)
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